Amazing, but true
electric cars have been around for 130 years. But only since the new millennium have the vehicles experienced a real renaissance. We have collected the 10 most important facts about electric cars for you.
1.What types of electric cars are there?
Electric cars are differentiated with regard to their drive systems.
Pure electric vehicles, so-called battery electric vehicles (BEV), theoretically have an electric motor which takes over the entire drive.
According to the latest state of the art, however, these vehicles still require some support for longer distances.
Therefore some models have a so-called range extender installed. This is an additional combustion engine, which supplies the battery with energy and thus is only indirectly involved in the drive.
Full hybrids, on the other hand, have a combustion and an electric motor, both of which serve the drive. If the battery used in this case can be charged by means of a power connection, this is referred to as a plug-in or plug-in hybrid.
Furthermore, there are microhybrid vehicles which do not have an electric motor but which use electric brake energy in order,
For example, the vehicle electrical system.
And there are mild hybrid vehicles which, in addition to an internal combustion engine, also have an electric motor which is fed by the braking energy (recuperation) and is particularly supported during start-up.
How is the energy stored?
In the vast majority of today’s electric cars, lithium-ion traction batteries are installed. These have a very high power and energy density, but they also have disadvantages.
So it takes a long time until they are fully charged again. They also discharge themselves during a long period of rest.
The manufacture of the batteries is still very expensive and their service life relatively low.
How far does one get?
The range to be achieved with a battery charge depends on the storage capacity of the installed battery.
Theoretically, considerable ranges would be possible which correspond to those of a car with an internal combustion engine. However, the still very high manufacturing costs for the batteries stand in the way.
The traction batteries currently installed by car manufacturers offer on average a range of approximately 100 to 600 km per charge.
Among the most powerful cars are two newcomers: the model E of Tesla, which is to come to the market at the end of 2017, and the Opel Ampera-E.
How long does the battery last?
The lifetime of the batteries installed in electric cars is limited. Experts believe that lithium-ion batteries have to be replaced after about 1,000 charges.
Calculating with a range of 100 km per charge, a battery keeps around 100,000 km long.
Depending on the usage intensity of the vehicle, this means a durability of approximately five to ten years.
The batteries mentioned above must first come from the test phase in order to make a reliable statement about their lifetime.
How many electric cars are driving in Germany?
In January 2017, almost 55,000 electric vehicles were registered in Germany.
This means that the electric or hybrid vehicles account for 0.1 percent of all cars registered in Germany at this time.
By the way, most of the electric vehicles were in the south and west of the republic and in the cities.
However, Germany still has a lot to offer: By 2020, the manufacturers are supposed to bring one million electric vehicles in Germany on the road, especially plug-in hybrids and vehicles with range extenders.
Which countries are considered as pioneers of electromobility?
Around 1.3 billion electric vehicles traveled around the world in 2015, according to a study by the Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) in Baden-Württemberg.
In the year, most e-cars, around 400,000, were in the USA.
The second largest market is now China, followed by small Japan.
In Europe the absolute pioneers are the Netherlands, Norway and France. For the year 2016, their inventories are between 90,000 and 80,000 electric vehicles.
They all have opened the market for electric cars through financial incentives for buyers.
What does an electric car cost?
Electric cars are much more expensive to buy than cars with a pure internal combustion engine.
Depending on the manufacturer and vehicle type, you have to accept up to twice higher prices.
According to an ADAC study, these are only expected in exceptional cases.
This is because even with the lack of a clutch or exhaust system, fewer wear parts can be replaced in the case of electric cars, resulting in lower workshop costs, the vehicles can not keep up with gasoline or diesel-powered cars due to the high purchase price.
Does an electric car have special rights?
Yes. The Electromobility Act (EmoG), which entered into force in June 2015, grants special rights to electric cars.
These include, among other things, reduced parking fees, preferential treatment in the case of access restrictions, such as those imposed on noise and exhaust fumes, and private parking spaces with loading facilities in the public space.
Where can I charge the vehicle?
There are currently around 7,000 retail outlets in Germany. These stations, which are mainly to be found in conurbations and public car parks, are to be supported in the coming years at a nationwide 70,000.
The 600 fast-charging points are to increase to 7,100 by 2020.
An interactive map, where there are pillars in Germany, is published by the Federal Network Agency. But also there are not all available stations listed.
How environmentally friendly are electric cars?
The manufacture of the batteries installed in electric cars is associated with an enormous energy expenditure, which initially has a negative effect on the overall power output of the electric vehicle.
Looking at the entire life of the electric car, however, it is significantly better in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption than vehicles with internal combustion engines.
Electric cars do not emit any pollutants and permanently depend on fossil sources of energy. Of course, the consumption of electric cars is also essential: the less electricity it takes per kilometer, the more it spares the environment.